Project Work: Lack of TLMs- Chapter five



            This chapter concludes the final stage of the research work and consists of the summary of the study, findings, conclusions, suggestions and recommendations in order to promote and enhance effective teaching and learning.


            The researcher conducted this research in order to ensure that, teaching in basics schools, with reference to Tapa Abotoase E.P primary school, should be done effectively by the use of appropriates teaching and learning materials. The use of TLM’s prove to be an effective way forward, rather than teaching and learning in abstract in schools.

            Further, the purpose of using suitable and appropriate materials were to make the lessons activity oriented, hence it will promote maximum participation of pupils in the teaching and learning process.

            Pre – test and post test were used for the collection of data. After the initial observation of the class teacher, a  pre – test on reading comprehension on the topic “what happened to the dinosaurs” was administered on 18/2/08. Another lesson was administered on mathematics on the topic multiplication of a fraction by a fraction on 22\2\08. These were followed by a two day intervention, which dealt with appropriate use of teaching and learning materials which was related to both lessons.

            On 28\2\08, after the intervention, a post – test was conducted on reading comprehension and mathematics to assess the impact and effectiveness of the interventions. Finally, comparison tables were drawn to show the scores of the pre – test on reading comprehension and on mathematics to find out whether there are significant differences in pupils performance and reduction in low performance.

Major Findings

            For any effective lesson to be taught at the primary level,  there is the need for teachers to make advance preparations in terms of teaching methods and teaching and learning materials. The researcher observed that in order to teach for pupils to understand, the teachers should be familiar with the subject matter.

            The researcher found out that, pupils understanding of lessons are totally based on the type of teaching and learning materials selected and used by the teacher during the lesson delivery.

            The researchers also detected when the pre – test was conducted that, there was not much participation coming from the pupils. This means that, pupils were not motivated to actively participate in the lesson as well as pay attention to the teacher.

            During the post – test, most of the pupils performed better than the pre – test. This shows that, pupils understanding of the lesson have improved significantly after the intervention.

            The researchers also realize that, the combination of effective teaching methods and the use of appropriate teaching and learning materials had a tremendous impact on pupils ability to understand concepts during the teaching and learning process.


            From the information gathered, it can be realized that, teachers right approach and the use of appropriate teaching and learning materials, enhance the understanding of lessons by pupils, hence making the teachers lesson more meaningful for the participation of pupils.

READ ALSO: Project Work: Lack of TLMs- Chapter four

            To add to the above, the inappropriate use of teaching techniques is also one of the factors leading to the poor performance of pupils.

Suggestions and Recommendations


            The researcher’s finding of the study has revealed some important issue, which seriously need to be addressed. Therefore, the following suggestions were made:

  • The academic and professional competence of a teacher will determine the effectiveness of the teachers’ methods and the materials to be used during the lesson. Therefore, teachers must be resourceful enough to identify and use materials that would motivate pupils during the course of teaching.
  • Furthermore, the researcher suggested that, since the basic level is the foundation stage in the academic life of pupils, education authorities and circuits supervises must organize in service training for teachers on how to use simple materials to teach pupils since it is believed that children are able to remember or retain whatever they are taught through an activity using TLM’s.
  • In addition, teachers should be able to improvise simple teaching and learning materials to replace or supports the sophisticated one’s to enhance teaching and learning.
  • Finally, the researcher is appealing to non – governmental organizations and philanthropists to help make the cost of educating pupils in the rural areas cheaper to by extending a larger portion of their funds to schools in the rural areas and also stakeholders of the Ghana education service (GES) should make available more teaching and learning materials most especially text books to all schools in the country to facilitate teaching and learning.

READ ALSO: Project Work: Lack of TLMs- Chapter three


            Since pupils in the basic schools cannot think in abstract during the teaching and learning process, teachers should ensure that they devote more time to prepare appropriate and suitable concrete materials that will be necessary for lessons.

            This research work was only limited to one school and class at Tapa – Abotoase E.P primary school. This was due to time and financial constraints. It is therefore suggested that further research into the topic “ the effect of lack of teaching and learning materials on the performance of pupils of Abotoase basic six should not be limited to only one school, but to all the schools in the Jasikan District.

READ ALSO: Project Work: Lack of TLMs in teaching- Chapter two


  1. Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary

The press syndicate of the University of Cambridge United Kingdom 2003

  • Farrant J. S (1980), Principles and Practice of Education, London: Longman Group Ltd.
  • Ghana Education Service, Education Studies Book for Basic School Teachers (2001). Accra Ministry of Education.
  • Isaac Adjei – Mensah et’ al (2001)

Education Studies for Basic School Teachers

(In – in out Programme) MoE Accra.

  •  Preko E.P et’ al (2001) Handbook on Lesson Note Preparation, MoE Accra.
  • Rev. Ama Afo Blay (2003) Hand book on

Lesson Note Preparation and Teaching and

Learning Materials in Primary Schools, (GES)


  1. Daniel J.K Dompreh and Daniel O Gasu.

Guidelines For Writing Project Work For Teacher Training.

  • Dondien C.K The Study of Education 2005.
  • Eddie Fianu, The Principles and Method of English Language Teaching (ELT) FOR College of Education. New edition (2005)
  • Religions and Moral Education For Secondary Year Teacher Trainees. 2005 AARON ADARKWAH.

READ ALSO: Project Work: Lack of TLMs in teaching– Chapter one

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Qweku Styles

Mommy and Daddy call me Chris. Colleagues call me Osei and more recent friends call me Kuffour. I choose both mom and dad as my favorite. I am a writer and freelancer. I happily share my experiences crisscrossing on social media. Follow us: Facebook: Legacynewsgh Twitter: @Alpha_Qweku Instagram: QwekuStyles WhatsApp: 0561354834/0593725660

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2 thoughts on “Project Work: Lack of TLMs- Chapter five

  1. can you share a copy with me. the project lack of tlms in word or pdf format . the data is not showing well on the website.

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