Reviewing literature is the act of establishing the gaps that exists in the previous researches which the present work you are reporting about is poised to fill. Also it is through literature review that the researcher will be able to re – examine his research questions and be in position to locate them in a more empirical framework.
Meaning of teaching and learning materials
It is an undeniable fact that teaching and learning materials are the items resources and materials made by the teacher or pupils and are used in the teaching and learning process to enable the pupils to understand the concepts and enable the teacher to achieve his objectives.
According to the Ghana education service hand book on lesson notes preparation and teaching and learning materials in primary schools, “ teaching and learning materials are relevant items selected or prepared by the teacher or pupils to enhance teaching and learning”.
According to Isaac – Mensah et’al (2001) in their teaching education studies for basic schools teachers “teaching and learning materials are resources we used to help learners to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes. They are sometimes referred to as instructional materials or audio visual aids (AVA)”
According to C K in the study of education (unpublished) “teaching and learning materials (TLM’s) are instructional aids or devices used to supplement or complement the teachers task. They vary from simple once such as the chalkboard, flat pictures, diagrams, illustrations and maps to more complicated and more expensive once like television, movies, projectors and many others”.
According to Eddie Fianu (2005) in his principles and method of teaching English language for colleges of education “ teaching and learning materials which are also called teaching and learning aids are of great help in stimulating learning in general. They occupy a very special place in the teaching and learning of subjects especially English language since it is more or less a foreign language”.
According to Prcko E. P et al (2001) in their teaching social studies in basic schools “teaching and learning materials (TLM’s) are all the resources, both natural and manmade that the teacher uses to facilitate pupils learning and thus, they serve as an avenue through which the learner who has not developed skills of reading is helped to understand lessons and it help to arouse learners interest and reinforce ideas which they have learnt.
READ ALSO: Project Work: Lack of TLMs- Chapter three
Types of teaching and learning materials
Teaching and learning materials are grouped into three main types according to the Ghana education service studies books for basic school teachers.
- Primary teaching and learning materials.
- Secondary teaching and learning materials.
- Tertiary teaching and learning materials.
According to Isaac Adjei Mensah et’ al (2001) in their teaching education studies for basic schools teachers, we can group all the materials used for teaching into three main types. These are primary, secondary and tertiary teaching and learning materials.
- The primary teaching and learning materials are real objects. You can find examples of this type in your environment. These materials include plants, animals and other objects in their environment.
- The secondary teaching and learning materials are models of real objects such as statues of birds or animals or voices reproduced through the use of audio cassette recorders.
- The tertiary teaching and learning materials includes slides, photographs, charts, and black board illustrations. You can use tertiary materials when you cannot get secondary aids.
According to Ata e’tal we have different kinds of TLM’s. This includes visual
aids, audio aids and audio visual aids.
- Visual aids are materials that appeal to the human sense of sight. These objects can only make sounds or movements when manipulated by the user. It also helps the speaker or the user to get his or her message across to the audience. Examples of visual materials include; the human body, models of actual objects, posters, flip charts, chalk boards, maps, video tapes and slides.
- Audio – visual materials are the types of teaching and learning materials that cater for audio or visual or both perceptions. Examples of audio visual materials include video cassettes players, films, TV, computers and the like.
- Audio aids are the type of teaching and learning materials that appeal to the sense of hearing only. Examples of audio aids include tape, telephones mobile phones etc.
Effect of lack of teaching and learning materials
The lack of TLM’s in teaching has a great effect on the pupils.
According to R. Nacino Brow “the use of words in teaching may confuse the children as they may not get the real idea of what the teacher is teaching”. According to him, “practical science needs much TLM’s for students to manipulate and get used to before they face examinations. When this is absent, students usually performed low in their exams.
J. S Farrant (1960) in his book principles and practice of education “Western patterns of education has led many teachers to overlook a number of traditional teaching and learning materials. The attraction of sophisticated visual materials has caused some teachers to despise basic teaching and learning materials. J. S Farrant is stressing him that some teachers ignore the basic TLM’s that are at their disposal because of sophisticated ones which they may not be able to use. When the teacher teaches something outside the experience of the pupils without using a working model, pupils may not understand what the teacher is saying. The pupils may be looking at the teacher doing the talking and at the end of the talking no learning will take place.
Importance of teaching and learning materials
Aaron Adarkwah in this book religious and moral education for second year teacher trainees stated the following importance of TLM’s.
- The audience attention is focused more completely.
- Pupils retain the message better.
- Your message is presented both aurally and visually.
- The message is transmitted more efficiently.
- TLM’s helps to establish organization for presentation.
- TLM’s help you to be concise.
- TLM’s add variety and emphasis to your presentation.
In addition, the Ghana education service handbook on lessons notes preparation and teaching and learning materials in primary schools also stated the following objectives for using T.L.Ms,
- Focusing pupil’s interest and attention.
- Showing basic structure of concepts.
- Relating abstraction to concreteness.
- Integrating scattered information into a new generation and holistic understanding.
- Encouraging verbal and written expression.
- Turning conceptual patterns into language.
- Explaining relationships.
According to E. A Preko and E. Tawiah Dadzie in their book teaching social study in basic schools, the following are the importance of teaching and learning materials. teaching and learning materials:
- Serve as an avenue through which the learner who has not developed the skills of reading is helped to understand lessons, especially in the Lower primary.
- Gives meaning to learners and enrich the learning process they go through. For example, maps and charts are able to present visual information that is very difficult to understand in print.
- Help learners to observe things in their real form and clarify ideas and the learning procedure.
- Help to arouse learner’s interest and re – in force ideas they have learned.
In all, one can attest to the fact that, the lack of teaching and learning materials is due to the fact that, some TLM’s are very expensive to acquire and some also depend on electricity to operate. Areas where there is no electricity will be lacking some items like films, television and slide projectors among others. TLM’s are also lacking in some areas or schools because many teachers are not able to use the cheap ones and due to this, they keep on teaching in abstract.