The major factor that contributes to the falling standards of education is the inability or inadequate use of teaching and learning materials in most of our schools.
According to Peter Awuku (2003) in his hand book on lesson notes preparation and teaching and learning materials in primary schools, “teaching and learning materials (TLM’s) are relevant items selected or prepared by the teacher or pupils to enhance teaching and learning”.
In addition, Macharia and L.H Wario (1989) in their teaching practice in primary schools, “teaching and learning materials are equipment that the teacher uses to make a lesson more meaningful and interesting.
In the researcher’s point of view, teaching and learning materials (TLM’s) in summary are the items that teachers and pupils use in the course of teaching and learning for better understanding.
TLM’s are categorized into three groups; they are audio, audio – visual and visual materials. The audio materials are those that one can listen to and the examples including radio, mobile phones, telephones etc. The audio – visual materials are those that one can listen to and view. Examples include television, computers etc. The visual materials are pictures, chats, flannel boards, real objects among others.
What prompted the researcher to tackle this topic is that, the lack of teaching and learning materials in teaching is a problem in the researcher’s school of attachment at Kefe Memorial E.P Primary School at Tapa – Abotoase, and even the few TLM’s available are less utilized by majority of the teachers. Through the researcher’s observation and interview, he found out that the teachers were not using TLM’s to teach due to the lack of the materials. The researcher has also realized that no attempts were made by the teachers to improvise simple teaching and learning materials.
The ministry of education and the teacher education division in conjunction with the government of Ghana has made several attempts to provide teaching and learning materials for schools. But it is rather unfortunate that they are not enough. This therefore prompted the researcher to investigate into the problem and also for the researcher to unveil the effects and suggests possible solutions to the problem.
Background and Rationale for the Study
It was during the resent school attachment program at Tapa – Abotoase E.P primary school that the researcher noticed that the lack of teaching and learning materials is having an effect on the academic performance of pupils. The researchers also observed that, most of the teachers deliver their lesson in abstract, which is having effects on the pupils.
Abotoase is a town which is found in the Jasikan district the Volta region of Ghana. Abotoase is a town seriously engaged in three major economic activities. These activities are farming, fishing and trading, which almost each and every soul is involved in at least one of the activities, learning education aside. Some of the people at Abotoase do not take education seriously at all, forgetting that in Ghana now, education is one of the major factors that is contributing to the development of the human resource both social and economically.
The geographical location of the school also counts. Thus after the pupils have helped their parents on their farms or fishing in the morning, they normally get tired and by the time they would walk from their homes to school, they would be late. Hence they would decide not to go to school taking the distance from their homes to the school into consideration.
The researcher has realized that, the economic activities have changed the minds of the people towards education. These pupils whose parents are either working or are poor, have developed negative attitude towards proper schooling and have changed the mind of their wards to divert to income generating activities more particularly fishing, farming and trading to help themselves and their parents or family to the detriment of their education.
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The researcher has observed that, the attitude of some teachers poor teaching and learning activities and the lack of TLM’s which should be used to motivate pupils to develop interest in schooling has led to the irregular school attendance by the pupils.
Therefore, the government and educationist who are putting things in place to make education less expensive are not being recognized in the rural areas.
Statements of the problem
The effect of lack of teaching and learning materials on the performance of pupils of Abotoase basic six (6) was identified at the researcher’s school of attachment during the long period of the out – component of the in – in out programme segment. The researcher also observed that most of the teachers were not using TLM’s to teach, but rather they teach in abstract due to the lack of the materials.
READ ALSO: Project Work: Lack of TLMs- Chapter four
Purpose of the study
It is worthy to mention with regret that the extent of the negative attitudes towards education is so high even with the introduction of the capitation grant. For the researcher to find a meaningful solution to this problem, the researcher will like to consider the following goals to be achieved at the end of the research work.
The following are the objectives:
- To examine the problems or obstacles, involved in educating pupils.
- To help the pupils to show considerable interest in education.
- To draw the attention of educational planners to provide enough teaching and learning materials for schools.
- To draw the attention of educational planners to the devastating educational issues concerning the education of pupils.
- Provide strategies which teachers will use to improvise teaching and learning materials.
Significance of the study
The significance of the study stipulates the importance and usefulness of the study to the effect of lack of teaching and learning materials. It is the hope of the researcher that the study will appeal to non – governmental organizations and philanthropists to assist schools by furnishing them with teaching and learning materials in schools in Ghana as a whole. Also teachers of pupils will improve upon their skills in improvising simple materials for teaching.
Also stakeholders of the Ghana education service (GES) could make it a point to make available more material in the country.
In all, both parties could now come to recognize the importance of education for their wards, in the country and in doing this, the standard of education in the country will reach an average height.
READ ALSO: Project Work: Lack of TLMs- Chapter five
Research questions are the types of Questions in a research work that gives directions to the study. According to Creswell (2005) “research questions help to narrow the purpose of the study to specific questions that the researcher seeks to answer.
Therefore the researcher would like to, put the following
research questions into consideration.
- What accounts for the pupils poor performance in education at Tapa – Abotoase E.P primary school?
- Do teachers use teaching and learning materials in their lesson delivery?
- Do the use of appropriate teaching and learning materials in teaching affect the pupils positively in terms of academics?
- How do the uses of teaching and learning materials improve upon the performance of pupils in education?
- Will the provision of enough TLM’s enable teachers to use them while teaching?
- Will the use TLM’s make teaching and learning more understandable at Abotoase E.P primary school?
- Do Pupils whose teachers’ use TLM’s to teach perform better than those whose teachers do not use them?
- Does the lack of TLM’s account for the pupils poor performance in education?
The various research questions are the questions the researcher will like to take into consideration at the end of the research work.
Delimitation of the study
To the researcher, a lot of issues have contributed to the poor performance of pupils at Abotoase E.P primary school. Various attempts have been made by researchers into the numerous problems at Abotoase, E. P primary school. Below are some of the causes of the poor performance of pupils;
- Pupils attending to odd jobs before and during school hours.
- Teachers interrupting with instructional hours.
- Parent’s inability to provide their wards education needs.
- Lateness of teachers to school during school days.
- The inability of teachers to secure accommodation in the town of the school’s location.
- Lateness of pupils to school.
- Provision of inadequate readers by the Ghana education service (GES) to the school.
- Pupils of Abotoase E. P primary school use most of their time visiting their parents’ farm and selling farm produce during markets days.
Through these numerous courses, the researcher will only focus on the effects of
lack of teaching and learning materials on the performance of pupils of Abotoase E. P basic six (6).
Limitations Of the study
The related issues and variables that hamper the study from yielding maximum out comes are as follows.
In the process of collecting or obtaining related information for this project work, the researcher intended going through all the schools in the Jasikan district of the Volta region for a successful research. How ever due to financial and time constraints the researcher conducted the research at Abotoase E. P primary basic six only.
Operational Definition of terms
This part of the study deals with the various terminologies that have been used within the context of the researchers work during the investigation. The definition of terms guides the layman to read and understand the work more easily.
Below are some of the terms, well defined which can be found in this project.
- T. L. M: Teaching and learning materials are relevant items selected or prepared by the teacher or pupils to enhance teaching and learning.
- Stakeholders: A person or citizen who is involved in an organization or society and therefore has a responsibility towards it.
- GES: Ghana education service is body set up by the government of Ghana to see to the affairs of education in the country.
- Philanthropist: A person who is kind and helpful to those who are poor by making generous donations
- Intervention: to get involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it or prevent it from getting worse.
- Investigation: to look into, examine a problem, statements etc. carefully in order to discover the truth.
- Enrollment: the official list of members of a school or an organization.
Organization of the study
This part of the project work states the aspects or areas the researcher wants to cover chapter by chapter throughout the whole research work.
Looking at the organization, Chapter one has presented a brief introduction leading to the background of the study. It has stated the problem, the purpose of the study. It also presented the significance of the study, the delimitation and limitation of the study and the operational definition of concepts.
Chapter two of the study focuses on the review of related literature on the proposed study.
Chapter three includes the description of the methodology, the research design, the population, the sample, the sampling procedure, the research instruments used in collecting of data and the results of the pilot tests. It also provide the collection procedure and discuses the data analysis procedures used in the study.
Chapter four presents, discussions and analysis of results and findings. It also looks at the summary of the chapters of the study.
Last but not least, chapter five torched and discussed the summary of the major findings, conclusion, recommendations and suggestions for future research.